Types of human trafficking
Human trafficking occurs in a variety of forms and in many different sections of society.
Types of human trafficking
Sexual exploitation is defined as forcing a person to perform sexual services in exchange for payment. The payment could be in the form of money or other compensation such as clothing or food.
Sexual exploitation is the most prevalent form of human trafficking in the Netherlands. Although sexual exploitation is most common in the prostitution sector, it can also be committed online. Forcing people to perform sexual services via a webcam is an example of this. The National Rapporteur distinguishes between domestic sexual exploitation (in which the solicitation and exploitation takes place in the Netherlands) and international sexual exploitation (in which the solicitation takes place abroad and the exploitation takes place in the Netherlands). These two types of sexual exploitation differ from one another, so each requires a different approach.
Human trafficking in the prostitution sector
Human trafficking and prostitution are not the same thing: sex work is a legal profession in the Netherlands. Paid sex with minors is prohibited by Dutch law. Despite this, the prostitution sector is vulnerable to human trafficking.
'Loverboy' is a euphemistic term for human traffickers that exploit children or young people in a particularly heinous manner. Sexual exploitation of minors is classified as human trafficking regardless of whether the minor in question has been coerced.
Labour exploitation is forced labour or services outside the sex industry. Victims of labour exploitation are often forced to endure poor working conditions in exchange for low pay or no pay at all. Two different types of labour exploitation exist: forced labour and forced services.
Forced labour generally involves an official employer-employee relationship, which means contracts and other official agreements exist. It generally occurs in sectors that are organised via sector organisations, collective labour agreements and interest groups, such as the transport sector or the catering sector.
Forced services are usually conducted in the informal sector, usually without any employment contract and/or in unorganised sectors. Examples of such services are forced domestic work, au pairs or street-newspaper sellers.
Victims of criminal exploitation are forced to commit criminal activities such as theft. Being forced to recruit new victims of human trafficking is also a form of criminal exploitation.
Non-punishment of victims of trafficking
In cases of criminal exploitation, the 'non-punishment principle' applies. This means that countries must establish legal provisions that enable victims of human trafficking to avoid prosecution or punishment for criminal acts that they have performed under duress.
Forced organ removal involves forcing a person to donate organs. As yet, little is known about this type of human trafficking in the Netherlands, as few victims of forced organ removal have been identified.